I don't understand, conceptually, how a 2kg box can not move pulling a 5kg box but move it at constant speed pulling a heavier box. Can you please clarify this? Thank you.

Hi Nategrana, thanks for the question. The difference between the scenarios has to do with static friction vs kinetic friction. The main idea to consider in both parts is that the more massive the box on the table, the harder it is to pull it since it will be pressed up upon more strongly by the surface (aka. the Normal force) and thereby experience more friction. Our goal is to find the maximum mass possible before that friction prevents acceleration. Notice that I mention "prevents acceleration", since being at rest or moving at constant speed are both examples of not accelerating, and in either case the friction is fully equivalent in magnitude to the tension resulting from the hanging mass.

The mass of the box on the table is only one part of the issue, and the other part is the coefficient of friction. The higher the coefficient of friction, the more friction force results from a given mass. So, in part a) we're dealing with the box on the table at rest, and this means the coefficient of friction to use is the coefficient of static friction. In part b) since the box is sliding, we use the coefficient of kinetic friction. The coefficient of kinetic friction is always lower than the coefficient of static friction. This means that for the force of friction to equal the tension force, the case b) with a smaller coefficient of friction calls for greater mass than compared to the case of part a) where a higher coefficient of static friction means a lower mass is needed to equal that same tension force.

## Comments

I don't understand, conceptually, how a 2kg box can not move pulling a 5kg box but move it at constant speed pulling a heavier box. Can you please clarify this? Thank you.

Hi Nategrana, thanks for the question. The difference between the scenarios has to do with

static frictionvskinetic friction. The main idea to consider in both parts is that the more massive the box on the table, the harder it is to pull it since it will be pressed up upon more strongly by the surface (aka. the Normal force) and thereby experience more friction. Our goal is to find the maximum mass possible before that friction prevents acceleration. Notice that I mention "prevents acceleration", since being at rest or moving at constant speed are both examples of not accelerating, and in either case the friction is fully equivalent in magnitude to the tension resulting from the hanging mass.The mass of the box on the table is only one part of the issue, and the other part is the coefficient of friction. The higher the coefficient of friction, the more friction force results from a given mass. So, in part a) we're dealing with the box on the table at rest, and this means the coefficient of friction to use is the coefficient of static friction. In part b) since the box is sliding, we use the coefficient of kinetic friction. The coefficient of kinetic friction is always lower than the coefficient of static friction. This means that for the force of friction to equal the tension force, the case b) with a smaller coefficient of friction calls for greater mass than compared to the case of part a) where a higher coefficient of static friction means a lower mass is needed to equal that same tension force.

Hope that helps,

Mr. Dychko